The first state that the great Turkish nation established in the central Islamic geography is the Seljuk Empire and the family that established this empire belongs to the Oghuz’s Kınık Tribe. We can say that the Kınık Tribe is the excellent sons of Oghuz Khan who is the legendary Turkish emperor. Turks are the nation which islamizes also their national legends. Oghuz Khan was Muslim and followed the lead of the Prophet, he believed in only Allah throughout his life, he was in jaza and jihad against those who did not believe in Allah. We cannot fully explain the reason and background that Oghuzes have come to the central Islamic geography by breaking away from the main body. In this point, the following holy hadith, written as a support to “Divan-I Lügatit-Türk by Kashgarli Mahmud, should not be underestimated: Almighty Allah says that “I have an army named TURK and I settled them in the East. I set against them to the nation that I’m angry with”.
Kaşgarlı Mahmut wrote his work between 1072 and 1074 and presented to Khalifa of Abbasid and Seljuk Sultan Meliksah in that years. After these years, the Islamic world is facing a severe crisis. Although the following expressions in the Qur’an are valid for all time, of course, these expressions also give us clues about the Turks’ arrival central to Islamic geography as Muslims: “”O believers! Whosoever among you will return from Allah, know that Allah, they should know that Allah bring a society such that Allah loves them and they love Allah; get soft on the believers, and get up against the infidels; they work in the way of Allah, they will not fear the condemnation of any condemnatory. This is a blessing from Allah; He gives it to whoever he pleases. Allah has a wide affection, know everything well” .In short, O believers, if one or community among you return from the religion, know that Allah will give them their troubles and bring another community in substitution for them. Allah would act out of charity for them in the earth and the afterlife, and they love Allah, obey Allah, avoid insurrection…they are both jihadists and loyal to their religion. When they see the necessity of doing duty, contrary to hypocrite, they do not work with feeling of someone else, ignore their rumor, do their duty.
We also know that Seljuk Bey, who gave his name to the Seljuk State, is beside Hakk against injustice and ruled the gazelles against his non-Muslim compatriots like Oğuz Han. When the Seljuk Turks came to the central Islamic world, they were not welcomed by The Ghaznavids, Karahans and Samanis, dominating Maveraunnehir and Khorasan. They gave a struggle for existence for a hundred years (940-1040), and they resisted a great patience against troubles and woes. In there, they live like expat. Then, eventually in 1040, they took the sultanate from Ghaznavids after three-day battle directed by Çağri Bey in Dandanakan where an important art and commercial center between Merv and Serahs is. In this watershed, whoever against them lost their state or these states was dependent on Seljuk State.
Here, it was necessary to mention XI. Centuries of Islamic world and central Islamic geography. The Abbasid Caliphate, which we can call the guardians of our institutional order, was in an internal disturbance and even they lost their capital city Baghdad and their caliphs were not saved from imprisonment. Though it seemed normal for that time, some contrived and small states emerged both the center and the ends of the Caliphate, destructive and separatist movements gained supporters, and new dissatisfied groups prod their coteries into action. Moreover, the centers of civilization have been spoiled, and Islam has really been attracted to the crisis which could cause its collapse. This situation of the Islamic world has encouraged the Eastern Roman Empire to regain pre-conquest lands.
Keywords: Seljuk Turks, The Crusades, Muslims, Christians, Islamic Geography.